Non-blocking ADC converter class

The built-in analogRead() function blocks until the conversion is ready; for most scenarios this behavior is ok. However, for a high-responsive systems such behavior would be unacceptable.

Another reason I wrote this small non-blocking class is because I bought a lcd-keypad shield, and then I built some improved clones:

Commercial LCD-keypad shield.
My improved clon: it includes a relay, a buzzer and a screw terminal for the power supply. Besides, the distance among push-buttons is larger.

The keypad is implemented through an analog ladder, where each push-button is a rung. Tipically any keypad is decoded through a state machine driven inside the system-tick ISR for debounce purposes. That’s way I cannot use the analogRead() function. My class allows me to handle the conversion inside the system-tick ISR without blocking it. Weeee! You might discover other useful applications for a non-blocking conversions. I will glad to hear them!

Source code

My class is totally based upon the analogRead() source code. Moreover, I’ve left the original comments. What I did was to split it out in 3 stages: start, observe and read. Although my goal is to use a templetized class, this version works well  for now for most purposes.

// Analog.hpp

/*Copyright (C) 
 * 2018 - fjrg76 at hotmail dot com
 * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
 * modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
 * as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
 * of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
 * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.

#ifndef  ANALOG_INC
#define  ANALOG_INC

#include <Arduino.h>
#include "wiring_private.h"
#include "pins_arduino.h"

extern uint8_t analog_reference;

class Analog
	explicit Analog( uint8_t _pin );
	void Start();
	bool IsReady() const;
	int Read() const;

	uint8_t pin;

#endif   /* ----- #ifndef ANALOG_INC  ----- */

// Analog.cpp

#include "Analog.hpp"

Analog::Analog( uint8_t _pin ) : pin{ _pin }
	pinMode( this->pin, INPUT );
	digitalWrite( this->pin, LOW );

#if defined(analogPinToChannel)
#if defined(__AVR_ATmega32U4__)
	if (pin >= 18) pin -= 18; // allow for channel or pin numbers
	pin = analogPinToChannel(pin);
#elif defined(__AVR_ATmega1280__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega2560__)
	if (pin >= 54) pin -= 54; // allow for channel or pin numbers
#elif defined(__AVR_ATmega32U4__)
	if (pin >= 18) pin -= 18; // allow for channel or pin numbers
#elif defined(__AVR_ATmega1284__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega1284P__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega644__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega644A__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega644P__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega644PA__)
	if (pin >= 24) pin -= 24; // allow for channel or pin numbers
	if (pin >= 14) pin -= 14; // allow for channel or pin numbers

#if defined(ADCSRB) && defined(MUX5)
	// the MUX5 bit of ADCSRB selects whether we're reading from channels
	// 0 to 7 (MUX5 low) or 8 to 15 (MUX5 high).
	ADCSRB = (ADCSRB & ~(1 << MUX5)) | (((pin >> 3) & 0x01) << MUX5);

	// set the analog reference (high two bits of ADMUX) and select the
	// channel (low 4 bits).  this also sets ADLAR (left-adjust result)
	// to 0 (the default).
#if defined(ADMUX)
#if defined(__AVR_ATtiny25__) || defined(__AVR_ATtiny45__) || defined(__AVR_ATtiny85__)
	ADMUX = (analog_reference << 4) | (pin & 0x07);
	ADMUX = (analog_reference << 6) | (pin & 0x07);

void Analog::Start()
	// without a delay, we seem to read from the wrong channel

#if defined(ADCSRA) && defined(ADCL)
	// start the conversion

bool Analog::IsReady() const
#if defined(ADCSRA) && defined(ADCL)
	// ADSC is cleared when the conversion finishes
	return !bit_is_set( ADCSRA, ADSC );
	// we don't want to get stuck
	return true;

int Analog::Read() const
	uint8_t low, high;

#if defined(ADCSRA) && defined(ADCL)
	// we have to read ADCL first; doing so locks both ADCL
	// and ADCH until ADCH is read.  reading ADCL second would
	// cause the results of each conversion to be discarded,
	// as ADCL and ADCH would be locked when it completed.
	low  = ADCL;
	high = ADCH;
	// we dont have an ADC, return 0
	low  = 0;
	high = 0;

	// combine the two bytes
	return (high << 8) | low;


Just a little example:

#include <Arduino.h>
#include "Analog.h"

int main(void)

	Analog a0( A0 );

	while( 1 )
		while( not a0.IsReady() );
	        auto read = a0.Read();
                // do something with the reading


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